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Key Takeaways

  • The medical expenses arising during an accident are covered with personal injury protection.
  • It takes care of the expenses of the drivers as well as the passengers, including rehabilitation charges, essential services, and even death benefits.
  • The minimum and maximum limits vary for each state.

What is personal injury protection?

Accidents are unfortunate but unavoidable too. You may be at fault or not, but the out-of-pocket expenses that tag along will tighten your purse strings if you do not have enough insurance coverage. Personal injury protection can be a lifesaver in such situations.

Personal injury protection (PIP) covers the cost of medical expenses that have occurred to you and the passengers involved in a crash. It is also known as no-fault insurance. Though there are limits to the number of passengers to which the coverage can be extended, PIP covers the expenses of the injured policyholders and passengers, even if some do not have insurance.

Understanding Personal Injury Protection (PIP)

What makes PIP the most convenient coverage at the time of emergency is that it covers the medical expenses of the injuries caused during a crash to you and the injured persons. This coverage extends to incidents where you are a pedestrian.

There are chances of confusing PIP with bodily injury liability coverage. However, PIP covers the cost of your own injury expenses, while the liability coverage covers the costs of other people's injuries when you are at fault for an accident.

Personal injury protection is required by 22 states which have either made it mandatory or have offered it as an add-on. If you have PIP coverage, then you receive the medical benefits during an accident even if the person at fault doesn't have insurance.

What does personal injury protection cover?

Regardless of whose fault is the highlighted feature of personal injury protection. Since it covers the cost of injuries that occur to yourself and the passengers, it reduces the lawsuits that would otherwise be filed after crashes.

This is considered a replacement for bodily injury liability as PIP covers the following.

Medical Bills

The expenses of the expected bills that can occur after a crash are covered with this. This might include surgical fees, ambulance, and hospitalization fees.

Lost Wages

Your personal injury protection (PIP) coverage may be able to assist you if you suffer injuries in an accident and have to take time off of work. If you are self-employed and require the assistance of temporary workers to complete certain activities, you may be eligible for this benefit.

Funeral Service Fees

This can cover the funeral, burial, or cremation expenses that can be incurred after a fatal crash.

Accidental Death Benefits

Your personal injury protection (PIP) insurance can contribute to the replacement of lost income for your family if you are killed in a car accident.

Essential Services

If you are unable to fulfill regular tasks like childcare or house cleaning after the accident, then PIP coverage can step in to pay for the expenses for such services.

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What is not covered under PIP?

However, there is a list of instances where the PIP cannot satisfy the requirement of a driver. Therefore, it is important that you carry the necessary coverage to navigate the out-of-pocket expenses.

  • Property Damage
  • An injury that has occurred to other drivers in a crash
  • Injuries that occur while committing a crime
  • Injuries sustained when you were being paid for driving when the accident occurred
  • Comprehensive or collision coverage
  • If the expenses are beyond the policies coverage limits

PIP Coverage Limits

Like every other car insurance coverage, the limits vary according to location and accident rates. The coverage limits of PIP vary according to state. While some states like Florida cover up to eighty percent of the medical bills and lost wages up to $10,000, states like Michigan have a reduced cap on the limits making the insurance rates higher in the state.

PIP Requirements by State

The PIP insurance cost is governed by factors like coverage level, the age that can place you under the high-risk or non-risk category, credit score, and driving history apart from the nature of the state you come from.

The states of Kentucky, New Jersey, and the District of Columbia are optional no-fault states. In such states, the policyholders can choose their policies accordingly.

Minimum PIP Requirements of States that Allow it

State Minimum PIP Requirement Is it a no-fault state? Tort threshold
Delaware $15,000/person, $30,000/accident No No
Florida $10,000 Yes Verbal
Hawaii $10,000 Yes $5,000
Kansas $9,000 Yes $2,000
Kentucky $10,000 Yes $1,000*
Maine $2,000/person No No
Maryland $2,500 No No
Massachusetts $8,000/per person Yes $2,000
Michigan $250,000 or opt-out Yes $3,000
Minnesota $20,000 for medical expenses, $20,000 for non-medical expenses Yes $4,000
New Hampshire Optional No No
New Jersey $15,000 Yes Verbal*
New York $50,000 Yes Verbal
North Dakota $30,000/person Yes $2,500
Oregon $15,000/person No No
Pennsylvania $5,000/person Yes Verbal
South Dakota Optional No No
Texas Optional No No
Utah $3,000/person Yes $3,000
Virginia Optional No No
Washington Optional No No
Washington D.C. Optional No* No
Wisconsin Optional No No

PIP Limits and Coverage in Detail

State Limit (per person) Benefits
Delaware $15,000 $5000 for funeral expenses, $30,000 for accident, up to $15,000 for a single person's injury
Florida $10,000 Up to $5000 in death benefits, medical expenses up to $10,000
Kansas Variable Limits $4,500 medical expense,

$4,500 rehabilitation expense, $2,000 funeral expense (per person)

$900 per month income loss for one year, $25 per day at-home services
Massachusetts $8000 $2000 by personal injury protection coverage, PIP is the secondary payer here
Michigan Variable Unlimited coverage, the option to opt-out, coverage up to $50,000
Minnesota $40,000 $20,000 each for hospital/medical and non-medical expenses
New Jersey $15,000 Essential services, death benefits, funeral expenses
New York $50,000 $50,000 medical expenses, $2000 death expenses
North Dakota $30,000 Also gives lost wages and funeral expenses
Oregon $15,000 Up to $3000 in wage loss, death benefit of $5000, essential services, child care
Pennsylvania $5000 Option to sue the at-fault driver in case of severe injuries.
Utah $3000 Option to sue the at-fault driver in case of severe injuries or if the medical expenses exceed $3000. Funeral expenses of $1500 and $3000 death benefit.

What is a no-fault state?

A no-fault state is one that requires drivers to carry personal injury protection (PIP) coverage in addition to bodily injury and property damage liability coverage. In a no-fault state, drivers must file a claim with their own insurance company for the costs of their injuries, regardless of who was to blame for the accident.

No-fault and personal injury protection states work hand-in-hand. PIP covers your and your passenger's medical expenses and lost income after an accident. Of the 21 states that offer PIP, only 13 states demand it, while in the rest, it is optional coverage. Among these, Arkansas, Delaware, Maryland, and Oregon are at-fault states where PIP is required.

States that Require PIP Coverage States with Optional PIP Coverage
Delaware Arkansans
Florida Kentucky
Hawaii Maryland
Kansas New Hampshire
Massachusetts South Dakota
Michigan Texas
Minnesota Virginia
New Jersey Washington
New York Washington DC
North Dakota  

How much does no-fault insurance cost?

Apart from the state you live in, the coverage limit and the deductibles determine the PIP insurance cost. For example, if we consider a six-month policy in the state of Florida with $25,000/$50,000/$25,000 of liability insurance, $10,000 of PIP coverage, and comprehensive and collision coverage with $500 deductibles, the following is the PIP breakup.

No-Fault Coverage PIP Total Price PIP Percent of Total
$0 Deductible, $10,000 PIP $137 $770 18%
$250 Deductible, $10,000 PIP $123 $757 16%
$500 Deductible, $10,000 PIP $118 $751 16%
$1,000 Deductible, $10,000 PIP $116 $747 15%

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Do you need PIP if you have health insurance?

Even though the purpose of both these is almost the same, i.e., to cover the medical expenses caused due to an accident, it is PIP that can cover miscellaneous expenses like lost wages or child care. Even though it can be considered a choice, health insurance has your back during other medical expenses that arise other than due to a crash. Hence, having a PIP in states where it is optional can supplement the health insurance benefits during accidents.

However, for those states with a lower limit on the PIP coverage, it is always wise to add health insurance or Medpay coverage to your policy. In the same vein, if your health insurance doesn't cover the bases for the expenses during accidents, then it is better to add PIP to your coverage.

Personal Injury Protection (PIP) vs. Liability Insurance

PIP is not a replacement for liability insurance, which is required by every state, with the exception of New Hampshire and Virginia.

If you cause injuries to a third party, such as a pedestrian or the driver and occupants of another vehicle, your liability insurance will pay for their medical expenses. However, the expenses that obviously arise for you during such a situation will be taken care of if you have opted for PIP.

There is also something called professional liability insurance; such plans are typically purchased by those who are at risk of being sued for damages and/or injuries, such as financial advisors, business owners, landlords, doctors, and lawyers.

How do you file a PIP claim?

One can file a PIP claim like any other insurance, either online or by phone. For ongoing, non-urgent claims, you must examine or pre-approve your treatment plan with a medical expert or outsourced claims processor.

Your car insurance company can allow partial reimbursements or instruct you to consult a doctor of their choosing. Getting a claim depends on the timeframe set by your insurance provider and the procedure involved in each state, which varies.

For example, in New Jersey, your insurer must approve any medical treatments within 10 days of an accident. In New York, medical bills must be presented within 45 days after treatment; otherwise, written justifications are required.

Always consult your insurance agent about PIP claim requirements. This will keep you prepared with the documents that must be submitted, fastening the process.

How does PIP work with other types of car insurance?

If you have PIP coverage, then it is an obvious choice in case of accidents and the expenses related to it. If your medical expenses exceed the limits of your policy, you have the option of filing a claim against the liability insurance policy held by the other driver.

However, you are allowed to bypass your personal injury protection (PIP) coverage and bring a case against the other motorist if your injuries are severe and long-lasting or if your medical expenses are higher than the level allowed by the law in your state.

Auto Insurance Data Methodology

The auto insurance rates published in this guide are based on the results of research completed by’s data team. Using a mix of public and internal data, we analyzed millions of rate averages across U.S. ZIP codes.

Quotes are typically based on a full coverage policy average unless otherwise noted within the content.

These rates were publicly sourced from insurer filings and should be used for comparative purposes only — your own quotes will differ. Given this, it’s important to go through our insurance steps form to find how much you can save with

Frequently Asked Questions

Is PIP the same as bodily injury?

PIP is an additional coverage option in a car insurance policy. This can supplement the expenses of the driver at fault or not during an accident. Some states have made PIP mandatory, while some have it as optional coverage.

Is PIP mandatory in Florida?

Yes, PIP is mandatory in Florida. One must submit proof of PIP to register your car with the Florida DMV.

How does PIP work in Florida?

Having a PIP in the state of Florida will cover 60% of your lost wages, up to a maximum of $10,000. It will also complement essential services like house cleaning and childcare as well.

What is the average PIP payment?

The average PIP payment can range from $2500 to $50,000 in some states.

How does PIP insurance work?

It is similar to any other car insurance coverage. During a crash, it takes care of the medical expenses of the driver regardless of whose fault.

Does using PIP raise your insurance?

Since PIP pays out claims regardless of fault, it shouldn't increase the insurance rates. There won't be much of a change in the insurance rates. However, it can depend on the insurance provider.

Is PIP required in Texas?

PIP is optional in Texas. PIP is a feature of every driver's liability insurance in the state. This way, the driver of the car and any passengers who were riding along at the time of the collision are both covered.

What does opt out of PIP mean?

Not all states have made PIP coverage mandatory. Several states like South Dakota, Texas, Virginia, and Washington have made it an optional coverage. Hence one can add it to their insurance policy to supplement their existing coverage.

How do I claim PIP benefits?

You can claim your PIP benefits just like any other policy claims through your provider by submitting the necessary documents. In this case, it would be the medical bills and related documents.

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